# Particle properties¶

Particle properties are attributes (typically numeric) associated with each individual particle. They play a central role in the data model employed by OVITO to represent molecular and other structures. Common examples for particle properties are position, chemical type or velocity. In OVITO, it is possible for the user to add any number of new properties to particles, either explicitly or as a result of computations performed within the program. Note, however, that it is not possible to define a property only for some of the particles. At any time, all particles in a dataset always have the same uniform set of properties (but their individual values may differ, of course).

Note that this concept of uniform properties is very general and applies to other kinds of entities as well. For instance, in OVITO the interatomic bonds may be associated with bond properties, e.g. the bond type or the bond color. So keep in mind that, even though the following introduction primarily focuses on particle properties, it applies to other classes of data elements in the same manner.

OVITO allows you to associate particles with an arbitrary number of properties. Each property is identified by its unique name, for example Position or Potential Energy. OVITO works with a built-in list of commonly-used property names such as the mentioned two, but you are free to define new properties and give them names as needed. The Position property plays a special role though, because it is always present. That’s because particles cannot exist without a spatial position. Other predefined standard properties such as Color, Radius or Selection have also a special meaning to the program, but they are option. Their values control how OVITO will render the particles. By assigning new values to these properties, you get control over the visual appearance of the particles.

In OVITO, per-particle property values can have different data types (real or integer) and dimensionality (e.g. scalar, vector, tensor). The Position property, for instance, is a vector property with three components per particle, referred to as Position.X, Position.Y and Position.Z within OVITO’s user interface.

## How are properties assigned?¶

An initial set of properties is automatically created by OVITO whenever you open a simulation data file. The values of standard properties such as Position, Particle Type and Velocity are typically initialized from the data loaded from the imported simulation file. Some file formats such as LAMMPS dump and the extended XYZ format can store an arbitrary number of extra data columns. These extra per-atom attributes are automatically mapped to corresponding particle properties in OVITO during file import.

Data inspector displaying the table of particle properties

To find out which properties are currently associated with the particles, you can open OVITO’s Data inspector panel, which is shown in the screenshot on the right. Alternatively, you can simply point the mouse cursor at a particle in the viewports to let OVITO display the values of its properties in the status bar.

OVITO provides a rich set of functions for modifying the properties of particles. These so-called modifiers will be introduced in more detail in a following section of this manual. But to already give you a first idea of the principle: The Assign color modifier function lets you assign a uniform color of your choice to all currently selected particles. It does that by setting the Color property of the particles to the given RGB value (if the Color property doesn’t exist yet, it is automatically created). The subset of currently selected particles is determined by the Selection particle property: Particles whose Selection property has a non-zero value are part of the current selection set, while particles for which Selection=0 are not selected.

Fittingly, OVITO provides a number of selection modifiers, which let you define a particle selection set by appropriately setting the values of the Selection property. For example, the Select type modifier takes the Particle Type property of each particle to decide whether or not to select that particle. It allows you to select all atoms of a particular chemical type, for example, and then perform some operation only on that subset of particles.

Another typical modifier is the Coordination analysis modifier. It computes the number of neighbors of each particle within a given cutoff range and stores the computation results in a new particle property named Coordination. Subsequently, you can refer to the values of this property, for example to select particles having a coordination number in a certain range or to color particles based on their coordination number (see Color coding modifier).

Of course it is possible to export the particle property values to an output file. OVITO supports a variety of output formats for that (see the data export section of this manual). For instance, the XYZ format is a simple table format supporting an arbitrary set of output columns.

## Special particle properties¶

As mentioned above, certain particle properties play a special role in OVITO, because their values control the visual appearance of the particles as well as other aspects. The following table lists these properties and describes their function:

Particle property

Data type (components)

Description

Position

Real (X, Y, Z)

The particle coordinates. For 2-dim. systems, the Z-component will be 0.

Color

Real (R, G, B)

If present, this property controls the display color of particles. Red, green and blue components are in the range [0,1].

Radius

Real

If present, this property controls the display size of particles.

Particle Type

Integer

Stores the type identifier of each particle. This also determines the display size and color if the Radius or Color property are not present.

Particle Identifier

Integer

Stores the unique ID of each particle. This information will be used by some modifiers to track particles over time even if the storage order changes.

Transparency

Real

A value in the range [0,1] controlling the particle’s transparency. If not present, particles are rendered fully opaque.

Selection

Integer

Stores the current selection state of particles (1 for selected particles; 0 otherwise).

## Special bond properties¶

Bond property

Data type (components)

Description

Topology

Integer (A, B)

This bond property is always present and holds the indices of the two particles connected by a bond.

Bond Type

Integer

Stores the type identifier of each bond. The bond type determines the display color if the Color property is not present.

Color

Real (R, G, B)

If present, this property controls the display color of individual bonds. Red, green and blue components are in the range [0,1].

Transparency

Real

A value in the range [0,1] controlling the bonds’s transparency. If not present, bonds are rendered fully opaque.

Selection

Integer

Stores the current selection state of bonds (1 for selected bonds; 0 otherwise).